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Landmines in the Vietnam War

Since the outbreak of the First Indochina War in 1946 and later the bloodier Second Indochina War of the 1960s and 1970s, countless numbers of land mines have been planted in what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Many of these devices that did not detonate at some point or another remain a very dangerous menace that continues plaguing the country and surrounding areas.

Ordnance and use of mines[edit]
French mines[edit]
The French made limited use of mines in the beginnings of the independence war in Indochina.[1]
American and South Vietnamese mines[edit]
The M14 mine blast-type anti-personnel mine used by the United States during the Vietnam War was known as the “toe popper.”[2] Earlier examples of the toe-popper were the Soviet-made PMK-40[3] and the World War II “ointment box.”[4] The United States also used the M16 mine, a copy of the German “Bouncing Betty”.
North Vietnamese mines[edit]
The North Vietnamese forces made extensive use of a variety of homemade booby traps including the old French trou de loup set with Bengali punji sticks.
The North Vietnamese termed the smaller mines đạp lôi (đạp lôi “step-mine”) or mìn muỗi (mìn muỗi “mosquito mine”). Their equivalent of the American toe popper was a booby trap made from an empty .50 caliber machine gun shell filled with gunpowder or other explosive powder and scrap metal. The casing is sealed in wax and placed in a bamboo cylinder with a nail in the bottom, which is then buried in the ground so only the wax on top is showing.[5] When a person steps on the wax top the casing is pressed in to the nail which then blows scrap metal into the soldier’s foot. Dap loi is rarely fatal but can blow a toe off and causes very painful wounds. Its most prevalent use was during the Vietnam War by Vietcong guerrillas attempting to find simple methods to slow the advancing U.S. forces down.[6][7] The MD-82 mine[when?] was a Vietnamese copy of the M-14 “toe popper.”
Casualties[edit]
Vietnamese[edit]
American landmines caused extensive casualties and amputees within among the Vietnamese civilian population.[8]
American[edit]
Landmines were a leading cause of American casualties. In 1965 alone, 65–70% of US Marine Corps casualties were caused by mines and booby-traps.[9][10]
After the war[edit]
After the Fall of Saigon in April 1975 and the end of the Vietnam War, the Vietnamese government was left with the legacy of both Vietnamese and American mines. The US government has recently given some fi
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Distino di Belita

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Distino di Belita

Studio album by Cesária Évora

Released
1990

Genre
Morna / coladeira

Length
42:01

Label
Lusafrica

Cesária Évora chronology

La Diva Aux Pieds Nus
(1988)
Distino di Belita
(1990)
Mar Azul
(1991)

Alternative cover

1998 reissue cover

Distino di Belita (also known as Nova Sintra) is an album by Cesária Évora. It was co-produced by the Parisian label Mélodie.
Track listing[edit]

“Bitina”
“Nova Sintra”
“Emigranti”
“Tanha”
“Salamansa”
“Odji Maguado”
“T’imbutchode”
“Distino Di Belita”
“Nova Sintra”
“Pontero”

External links[edit]

Nova Sintra at AllMusic
“iTunes – Music – Distino di Belita”. iTunes. retrieved 23 October 2014.

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Cesária Évora

Studio albums

Mornas de Cabo Verde & Oriondino
Cesaria
La Diva aux Pieds Nus
Distino di Belita
Mar Azul
Miss Perfumado
Cesária
Cabo Verde
Café Atlantico
São Vicente di Longe
Voz d’Amor
Rogamar
Nha Sentimento
Cesaria Evora & …

Posthumous albums

Mâe carinhosa

Compilation albums

Sodade – Les Plus Belles Mornas de Cesária
Best of
Les Essentiels
Anthologie – Mornas & Coladeras
Anthology
Radio Mindelo
Cape Verde, terra d’amore editions (Vol. 1
Vol. 2
Vol. 3
Vol. 4
_in Jazz – Vol. 5)
Greatest Hits
La Collection

Live albums

Club Sodade
Live à l’Olympia
Colours of the World
Live in Paris
Live d’Amor: Cesaria Evora in Concert

Singles

“Cabo Verde”
“Mar Azul”
“Sodade”
“Nha Cancera Ka Tem Medida”
“Apocalipse”
“Cabo Verde Manda Mantenha”
“Carnaval de São Vicente”
“Nutridinha”
“Tiempo y Silencio”
“Yamore”
“Mar de Canal”
“Àfrica Nossa”
“Crepuscolare Solitudine (Crepuscular Solidão)”
“Ligereza”

Named after

Cesária Évora Airport

This 1990s album–related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Gregorio López-Bravo y Castro

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Gregorio López-Bravo y Castro (1972)

Gregorio López-Bravo y Castro (29 December 1923 in Madrid, Spain – 19 February 1985 in Bilbao, Spain) was a Spanish politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs between 1969 and 1973. He died in the Mount Oiz plane crash.

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Opus Dei

General

Types of membership

list of members

Priestly Society of the Holy Cross
Numerary
Supernumerary
Teachings
Timeline

Churches
Shrines

Torreciudad
St Mary Star of the Sea, West Melbourne
Peterskirche, Vienna

Key people

Josemaría Escrivá

canonization

John Masso
Javier Echevarría Rodríguez
Álvaro del Portillo
Joseph Muzquiz
Dora del Hoyo
Scott Hahn
Joaquín Navarro-Valls

Universities

University of Navarra
Pontifical University of the Holy Cross
PanAmerican Institute for High Business Direction
Lexington College
Strathmore University

Schools

Colégio Planalto
The Heights School
Northridge Preparatory School
Oakcrest School
PAREF Northfield School

Media

Camino (film)
The Da Vinci Code

film
criticism

L’Opus Dei: enquête sur le “monstre”
Opus Dei: An Objective Look Behind the Myths and Reality of the Most Controversial Force in the Catholic Church

Related topics

Bibliography
Controversies
Corporate work
Opus Dei and Catholic Church leaders
Opus Dei and politics
Opus Dei in society
Women in Opus Dei

Catholicism portal

This article about a Spanish politician is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness

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Comprehensive Soldier & Family Fitness logo.

Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) was established in August 2008 by then-Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Gen. George W. Casey, Jr., in an effort to address the challenges being faced due to multiple deployments required by persistent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Instead of focusing only on treatment after the issues arose, Casey wanted to also provide preventative measures to the Soldiers, their Families and Army Civilians to make them stronger on the front end.[1] CSF Resilience Training was created to give these individuals the life skills needed to better cope with adversity and bounce back stronger from these challenges. Renamed in October 2012 as Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness (CSF2), was designed to build resilience and enhance performance of the Army Family—Soldiers, their Families, and Army Civilians. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness is not a treatment program in response to adverse psychological conditions. CSF2 has three main components: online self-development, training, and metrics and evaluation. According to Army Regulation 350-53, to be published December 2013, the following are the Vision, Mission and components of CSF2:

Contents

1 Vision
2 Mission
3 Components

3.1 Online Self-Development
3.2 Training
3.3 Metrics and Evaluation

4 New Initiatives

4.1 Executive Resilience and Performance Course
4.2 Training Support Package
4.3 Army Spouse MRT Training

5 Criticism

5.1 Scientific Evidence
5.2 Spiritual Fitness
5.3 Spiritual Fitness and the GAT

6 References
7 External links

Vision[edit]
A Total Army team of physically healthy and psychologically strong Soldiers, Families and Army Civilians whose resilience and total fitness enables them to thrive in the military and civilian sector and to meet a wide range of operational demands.
Mission[edit]
Execute the Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness (CSF2) program, as part of the U.S. Army Ready and Resilient Campaign Plan, in order to increase the physical and psychological health, resilience and performance of Soldiers, Families and Army Civilians.
Components[edit]
In addition to live training at the unit level and in Army school houses, CSF2 provides
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Duma Nkosi

Duma Moses Nkosi (born 7 June 1957) is the former mayor of the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality from 2001 to 2008, succeeded by Lentheng Helen Mekgwe. He previously served as a member of the parliament from Gauteng from 1994 to 2001.
In 1998, Nkosi was called before the TRC to gain amnesty concerning his role as chair of the local ANC in Thokoza (1990–1996) whose members had participated in the 22 February 1990 murder of a number of people.[1]
References[edit]

^ TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION – AMNESTY HEARING – DATE: 25TH NOVEMBER 1998 – NAME: DUMA NKOSI – APPLICATION NO: AM 7269/97 – HELD AT: JISS CENTRE JOHANNESBURG – DAY : 2

This article about a mayor in South Africa is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Canterbury College

Canterbury College can mean any one of a number of educational institutions:

Canterbury College, Oxford, a former college of the University of Oxford
University of Canterbury, formerly known as Canterbury College, in New Zealand
Canterbury College (Indiana), college founded 1876 in United States
Canterbury College, Kent, a further education institution in England
Canterbury College of Art, merged into the Kent Institute of Art & Design (now also defunct)
Canterbury College (Waterford), an independent co-educational P-12 college in Queensland, Australia
Canterbury Girls’ Secondary College, Canterbury, Victoria, Australia
Canterbury College (Windsor, Ontario), affiliated with the University of Windsor in Windsor, Ontario, Canada
Canterbury University (Seychelles) an unaccredited institution registered in Seychelles

This disambiguation page lists articles about schools, colleges, or other educational institutions which are associated with the same title. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.

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San José Estancia Grande

San José Estancia Grande

Municipality and town

San José Estancia Grande

Location in Mexico

Coordinates: 16°22′N 98°15′W / 16.367°N 98.250°W / 16.367; -98.250Coordinates: 16°22′N 98°15′W / 16.367°N 98.250°W / 16.367; -98.250

Country
 Mexico

State
Oaxaca

Area

 • Total
103.3 km2 (39.9 sq mi)

Population (2005)

 • Total
955

Time zone
Central Standard Time (UTC-6)

 • Summer (DST)
Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)

San José Estancia Grande is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 103.3 km². It is located in the Jamiltepec District in the west of the Costa Region.
As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 955.[1]
References[edit]

^ “San José Estancia Grande”. Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved June 12, 2009. 

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Municipalities of Jamiltepec District, Oaxaca

Mártires de Tacubaya
Pinotepa de Don Luis
Pinotepa Nacional
San Agustín Chayuco
San Andrés Huaxpaltepec
San Antonio Tepetlapa
San José Estancia Grande
San Juan Bautista lo de Soto
San Juan Cacahuatepec
San Juan Colorado
San Lorenzo, Oaxaca
San Miguel Tlacamama
San Pedro Atoyac
San Pedro Jicayán
San Sebastián Ixcapa
Santa Catarina Mechoacán
Santa María Cortijo
Santa María Huazolotitlán
Santiago Ixtayutla
Santiago Jamiltepec
Santiago Llano Grande
Santiago Tapextla
Santiago Tetepec
Santo Domingo Armenta

See also Municipalities of Oaxaca

This article about a location in the Mexican state of Oaxaca is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Ndungu

Ndungu, or Ndung’u, is a surname of Kenyan origin that may refer to:

Njoki Susanna Ndung’u (born 1965), Kenyan lawyer and associate justice of the Supreme Court of Kenya
Njuguna Ndung’u (born 1960), Kenyan economist and Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya
Samuel Ndungu (born 1988), Kenyan long-distance runner based in Japan
Thumbi Ndung’u, Kenyan medic and AIDS researcher

See also[edit]

Ndungu Land Commission, public investigation into land use in Kenya

This page or section lists people with the surname Ndungu. If an internal link intending to refer to a specific person led you to this page, you may wish to change that link by adding the person’s given name(s) to the link.

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Ulster Volunteers

Ulster Volunteer Force

UVF emblem, with the Red Hand of Ulster and the motto “For God and Ulster”

Active
13 January 1913 – 1 May 1919 (various units active since 1912)
25 June 1920 – early 1922

Ideology
Ulster loyalism
British unionism
Opposition to Home Rule

Leaders
Edward Carson
James Craig

Headquarters
Belfast

Area of operations
Ulster

Strength
Unknown, at least 100,000 in 1912

Part of
Military wing of the Ulster Unionist Council

Became
Absorbed into the Ulster Special Constabulary

Opponents
Irish nationalists (including Irish republicans)
British government

Ulster Volunteer Force in 1914

The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government (or Home Rule) for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom. The Ulster Volunteers were based in the northern province of Ulster. Many Ulster Protestants feared being governed by a Catholic-majority parliament in Dublin and losing their local supremacy and strong links with Britain. In 1913, the militias were organised into the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and vowed to resist any attempts by the British Government to ‘impose’ Home Rule on Ulster. Later that year, Irish nationalists formed a rival militia, the Irish Volunteers, to safeguard Home Rule. In April 1914, the UVF smuggled 25,000 rifles into Ulster. The Home Rule Crisis was halted by the outbreak of World War I in August 1914. Many UVF members enlisted with the British Army’s 36th (Ulster) Division and went to fight on the Western Front.
After World War I, the British Government decided to set up two self-governing regions in Ireland: Northern Ireland (made up of six Ulster counties with Protestant/unionist majorities) and Southern Ireland. However, by 1920 the Irish War of Independence was raging and the Irish Republican Army (IRA), the army of the self-declared Irish Republic, was launching attacks on British forces in Ireland. As a response to these attacks, the UVF was revived. However, this revival was largely unsuccessful and the UVF was absorbed into the Ulster Special Constabulary (USC), the reserve police force of the Northern Ireland Government.
A unionist paramilitary group calling itself the Ulster Volunteer Force was formed in 1966. It claims to be a direct descendant of the older organisation and uses the same logo, but there are no organisational links between the two.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Before World War I
2 World War I
3 After World War I
4 See

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Evangelista Analco

Evangelista Analco

Municipality and town

Evangelista Analco

Location in Mexico

Coordinates: 17°24′N 96°32′W / 17.400°N 96.533°W / 17.400; -96.533Coordinates: 17°24′N 96°32′W / 17.400°N 96.533°W / 17.400; -96.533

Country
 Mexico

State
Oaxaca

Area

 • Total
33.17 km2 (12.81 sq mi)

Population (2005)

 • Total
412

Time zone
Central Standard Time (UTC-6)

 • Summer (DST)
Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)

Evangelista Analco is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 33.17 km². It is part of the Ixtlán District in the Sierra Norte de Oaxaca region.
As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 412.[1]
References[edit]

^ “Evangelista Analco”. Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved June 12, 2009. 

This article about a location in the Mexican state of Oaxaca is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Municipalities of Ixtlán District, Oaxaca

Abejones
Capulalpam de Méndez
Evangelista Analco
Guelatao de Juárez
Ixtlán de Juárez
Natividad
Nuevo Zoquiapam
San Juan Atepec
San Juan Chicomezuchil
San Juan Quiotepec
San Miguel Aloápam
San Miguel Amatlán
San Miguel del Río
San Miguel Yotao
San Pablo Macuiltianguis
San Pedro Yaneri
San Pedro Yólox
Santa Ana Yareni
Santa Catarina Ixtepeji
Santa Catarina Lachatao
Santa María Jaltianguis
Santa María Yavesía
Santiago Comaltepec
Santiago Laxopa
Santiago Xiacuí
Teococuilco de Marcos Pérez

See also Municipalities of Oaxaca

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